- Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of in any instant
- Waking Consciousness: Normal, clear, organized, alert awareness
- Altered State of Consciousness (ASC): Awarenessthat is distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness
- The Psychological Approach is understanding behavior in terms of psychological events, are different states of consciousness due to psychological events??
- The Cognitive Approach emphasizes that people differ from each other because individual perceptions and thought processes are different, WHICH WILL CONTRIBUTE TO DIFFERENT STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
- Definition: Innate, biological rhythm essential for survival, Sleep is a natural state of consciousness, when we are less aware of our surroundings.
- Sleep Deprivation: Sleep loss; being deprived of needed amounts of sleep
- Sleep-Deprivation Psychosis: Major disruption that occurs because of sleep loss
Changing patterns of brain-wave activity help define the various stages of sleep.
Sleep Progresses Through Four Stages
Brain waves become slower as sleep deepens from Stage 1 through Stage 4.
Characterized by rapid eye movements (REM), high arousal, frequent dreaming.
- Insomnia: Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep, or waking early
- Drug-Dependency Insomnia: Sleeplessness that follows withdrawal from sleeping pills
- Sleepwalking: Occurs in NREM sleep during Stages 3 and 4
- Sleeptalking: Speaking while asleep; occurs in NREM sleep
- Night Terrors: Total panic and hallucinations may occur
PHYSIOLOGICAL SLEEP DISORDERS:
- Sleep Apnea: Interrupted breathing during sleep; cause of very loud snoring
–Hypersomnia: Extreme daytime sleepiness
–Apnea can be treated by
- Weight loss
- Breathing mask
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS; Crib Death): Sudden, unexplained death of healthy infant (infants should sleep on back or on side to try to prevent)
HEALTHY SELF-INDUCED ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
Hypnosis: A state of heightened suggestibility in which some people are able to experience imagined situations as if they were real.
Dissociation Theories of Hypnosis
- Viewing hypnosis as an altered state involving a division (dissociation) of consciousness.
Social-Cognitive Theories of Hypnosis
- Hypnotic experiences result from expectations of people who are motivated to take on the role of being hypnotized.
- Altered state of consciousness characterized by intensely narrowed attention and increased openness to suggestion
- Hypnotic Susceptibility: How easily a person can be hypnotized
- Basic Suggestion Effect: Tendency of hypnotized people to carry out suggested actions as though they were involuntary
Hypnosis Can’s and Cannot’s:
–Help people relax
–Get people to make better progress in therapy
–Produce acts of superhuman strength
–Produce age regression
–Force you to do things against your will
- Mental exercise designed to produce relaxation or heightened awareness
- Concentrative Meditation: Attention is paid to a single focal point (i.e., object, thought, etc.)
–Produces relaxation response and thus works to reduce stress
- Receptive Meditation: Based on widening attention span to become aware of everything experienced at a given moment
- Mantra: Word(s) or sound(s) repeated silently during concentrative meditation
- Relaxation Response: Occurs at time of relaxation; internal response that prevents activation of adrenal glands
UNHEALTHY SELF-INDUCED ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
- Physical Dependence: Addiction based on drug tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
–Drug Tolerance: Reduction in body’s response to a drug
–Withdrawal Symptoms: Physical illness following withdrawal of the drug
- Psychological Dependence: Drug dependence based on psychological or emotional needs
–Usually crave drug
–Can be as powerful as physiological addiction
- Psychoactive Drug: Substance capable of altering attention, judgment, memory, time sense, self-control, emotion, or perception
- Stimulant: Substance that increases activity in body and nervous system
- Depressant: Substance that decreases activity in body and nervous system
- Ethyl Alcohol: Intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors
–NOT a stimulant but DOES lower inhibitions
- Binge Drinking: The dangerous consumption of five or more drinks in a short time; four or more for women
Bernstein, D.A. & Nash, P.W. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Feldman, R. (2013). Essentials of understanding psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2012), Personality: classic theories and modern research (5th ed). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
McGraw-Hill.McGraw Hill Higher Education (2013), The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.